Kỷ niệm 50 năm Hoa Kỳ ban hành Đạo Luật Quyền Bầu Cử!

DQ sẽ viết phần tiếng Việt sau nha. Giờ DQ chỉ kịp ghi lại phần tiếng Anh về các luật lệ đã được thi hành bởi Đạo Luật Quyền Bầu Cử (Voting Right Acts) trong vòng 50 năm qua thôi nha.


The Voting Rights Act, also known as the VRA, was signed on August 6, 1965 (42 U.S.C. 1973 to 1973bb-1). Pursuant to the VRA, the Attorney General undertakes investigations and litigation throughout the United States and its territories, conducts administrative reviews of changes in voting practices and procedures and monitors elections. The VRA has been amended on a number of occasions, with the most recent major amendments in the Voting Rights Act Reauthorization and Amendments Act of 2006.

Section 2 of the VRA is a nationwide prohibition against voting practices and procedures (including redistricting plans and at-large election systems, poll worker hiring, and voter registration procedures) that discriminate on the basis of race, color or membership in a language minority group. Section 2 prohibits not only election-related practices and procedures and monitors elections that are intended to be racially discriminatory, but also those that are shown to have a racially discriminatory result.
Section 4 of the VRA sets forth criteria for determining whether a jurisdiction is covered under certain of the special provisions of the Act.

Section 5 of the VRA was enacted to freeze changes in election practices or procedures in covered jurisdictions until the new procedures have been determined, either after administrative review by the Attorney General, or after a lawsuit before the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, to have neither discriminatory purpose or effect. The Attorney General has published detailed procedures that explain Section 5. On June 25, 2013, the Supreme Court held that it is unconstitutional to use the coverage formula in Section 4(b) of the VRA to determine which jurisdictions are subject to the preclearance requirement of Section 5 of the VRA. Shelby County v. Holder, 133 S. Ct. 2612 (2013). The Supreme Court did not rule on the constitutionality of Section 5 itself. The effect of the Shelby County decision is that the jurisdictions identified by the coverage formula in Section 4(b) no longer need to seek preclearance for new voting changes, unless they are covered by a separate court order entered under Section 3(c) of the VRA.

Section 3 and Section 8 of the VRA give the federal courts and the Attorney General, respectively, authority to certify counties for the assignment of federal observers. Federal observers are assigned to polling places so they can monitor election-day practices in response to concerns about compliance with the VRA. Department staff may also be sent to monitor elections.
Sections 203 and 4 of the VRA require certain jurisdictions to provide bilingual written voting materials and voting assistance regarding covered minority languages. The Attorney General has published detailed guidelines that explain these language minority requirements.

Section 208 of the VRA provides for voters who need assistance to vote by reason of blindness, disability, or inability to read or write. Any such voter may be given assistance by a person of the voter’s choice, other than the voter’s employer or agent of the employer or officer or agent of the voter’s union.

The Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act, also known as VAEHA, was enacted by Congress in 1984 (42 U.S.C. 1973ee t0 1973ee-6). VAEHA requires states to take certain steps to make the voting process accessible to people with disabilities.
The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, also known as UOCAVA, was enacted by Congress in 1986 (42. U.S.C. 1973ff to 1973ff-7). UOCAVA requires that the states and territories allow certain U.S. citizens who are away from their homes, including members of the uniformed services and the merchant marine, their family members, and U.S. citizens who are residing outside the country to register and vote absentee in federal elections. UOCAVA has been amended on several occasions, with the most recent major amendments in the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment (MOVE) Act of 2009.

Nguồn: Bộ Tư Pháp Hoa Kỳ (The United States Department of Justice)


2 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Tiểu Thảo - Trần Tường Vi
    Aug 09, 2015 @ 02:55:32

    Ðợi có tiếng Việt rồi đọc luôn . Giờ “Like” trước giành chỗ … hihi


    • Dã Quỳ
      Aug 10, 2015 @ 00:46:13

      hì hì hì, vậy thì chị chịu khó đợi tiếp đi nhen, chớ mẹ Cún chưa chép bản tiếng Việt lại được nữa nè 😉


Cảm ơn bạn đã ghé thăm. Nếu bạn có để lại ý kiến hoặc chia sẻ của bạn thì xin cho biết quý danh luôn nhé. Bởi với một người "ẩn danh" thì khó trò chuyện lắm! :) :)

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